Head Injury in Children and Adults


What General Practitioners need to know In Singapore, head injury is one of the leading causes of disability and death in younger adults (less than 40 years of age). Up to 50% of trauma deaths are associated with head injury. Early assessment and the correct management can improve patient outcome. The Scope of Head Injury […]

Somatic Mutations in Neurological Diseases

ideal sample DNA

  We inherit our genes from our parents – one set from each parent. As they are passed down from generation to generation, our genes undergo changes through a process known as mutation. Most of the time, these mutations occur in non-critical regions of the genome and do not cause any overt disease; instead, they […]

Neuro-otology and Dizziness


Dizziness is a very common complaint in GP clinics, and the causes can range from benign (e.g. anxiety, viral infection, etc.) to serious (acute stroke, brain tumour, etc.). Neuro-otology is a shared subspecialty of neurology and otorhinolaryngology (ENT) studying the peripheral and central pathways of the vestibular portion of the vestibulocochlear (VIII) nerve, and is […]

Minimal Invasive Neurosurgery


The development of Minimal Invasive Surgical (MIS) techniques has evolved over the last decade. In many surgical disciplines such as Hepatobiliary surgery, these techniques have become the norm. However, in cranial and spine surgeries, MIS techniques have taken a longer time to perfect. One reason for this is the limitation of the space available in […]

Alzheimer’s Disease

Old hands solving jigsaw puzzle

Dementia is a global health challenge. The age-standardised prevalence for those aged ≥60 years is approximately 5% to 7%. It is estimated that 35.6 million people lived with dementia worldwide in 2010; this is expected to almost double every 20 years.1 While there are many causes for dementia, Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), first described in 1906 […]

Parkinson’s Disease


Parkinson’s disease is the second most common progressive, neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer disease. Parkinson’s disease is named after James Parkinson, a 19th century general practitioner in London. Parkinson’s disease is characterised by pathologic intra-neuronal α–synuclein-positive Lewy bodies and neuronal cell loss. Classically this process has been described as involving the dopaminergic cells of the substantia […]

Vascular Malformations


Arterio-venous malformations are developmental abnormalities of blood vessels. They are relatively common and are estimated to affect 1% to 2% of the general population.1 The clinical presentations can vary from a small soft tissue lump affecting the face to a life-threatening lesion within the brain.2 What are Vascular Malformations? Vascular malformations are congenital conditions that […]

Tele-rehabilitation Solution for Stroke Patients to Boost Physical Recovery


The first three to six months after a person suffers a stroke is a crucial period for him/her to achieve better functional recovery. However, many patients face physical, social and financial barriers that hinder their ability to get continual, supervised rehabilitation after their discharge from the hospital. Such barriers include problems with ambulating from home […]

Biomarker Brain Imaging


What’s your name?” — “Auguste.” — “Your last name?” — “Auguste.” — “What’s your husband’s name?” — “Auguste, I think.” This conversation between the psychiatrist Alois Alzheimer and his patient, 51-year-old Auguste Deter, made medical history. Deter was the world’s first Alzheimer’s patient. After her death, Alzheimer dissected her brain and found that the parts […]

Deep brain stimulation therapy for Parkinson’s disease


DBS for Parkinson’s Disease by A/Prof John Thomas Parkinson’s disease usually develops in patients between the ages of 55 and 65 years and has a prevalence of 1% to 2% in patients above the age of 60 years.1 In Singapore, Parkinson’s disease has a reported incidence of 32 per 100,000 persons above the age of […]

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