Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Globally, it is estimated that polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) affects about 8%-10% of women of reproductive age. No one is quite sure what causes PCOS, and it is likely to be the result of a number of genetic as well as environmental factors. PCOS and Fertility PCOS is a hormonal imbalance in women that is […]

Combined Contraceptive Pills


The contraceptive pill has been available for more than half a century; the first hormonal contraceptive was approved by the FDA for use in the United States in 1960. Combined oral contraceptive (COC) pills consist of an oestrogen in combination with a progestin. This type of pill exerts its action by inhibiting ovulation, altering cervical […]

Dr Roland Chieng Provides a Brief Look at Infertility

Infertility is a medical condition defined as the inability to conceive a pregnancy after 12 months of unprotected sexual intercourse. It can be caused by a range of genetic, medical, surgical or trauma-related issues. Infertility affects one in six couples of reproductive age, and due to its many possible causes, is a challenge to treat. […]

Pelvic Organ Prolapse

Female doctor examining a pelvis x ray

With advancements in medical care, many chronic diseases are treatable, and we enjoy unprecedented health despite our rapidly ageing population in Singapore. As the more visible chronic diseases become easily manageable, other less visible diseases are coming to the forefront as the baby boomers in our population experience life in their golden years. Pelvic organ […]

Intrauterine Foetal Growth Restriction

Pregnant tummy laid down on a hammock

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a complication that affects up to 15% of pregnancies. The underlying pathogenesis is placental insufficiency, which is implied when other pathologies such as chromosomal aberration, genetic syndrome and infection are excluded. IUGR is suspected when foetal biometry indicates small for gestational age which is variously defined as abdominal circumference below […]

Ectopic Pregnancy


An ectopic pregnancy occurs when the fertilised ovum implants outside the intrauterine cavity, usually in one of the Fallopian tubes. More than 95% of ectopic pregnancies occur in the Fallopian tubes. Others occur in the cornua of the uterus, ovary, cervix or abdominal cavity. As none of these anatomic sites can accommodate placental attachment or […]

Diabetes in Pregnancy

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered the most common pre-existing medical disorder complicating pregnancy. Type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes affect 2%-5% of pregnancies. Gestational diabetes is the form of diabetes that is first discovered in a pregnant woman at around 28 weeks of gestation. Once diagnosed, the focus should be on relaying adequate and […]



The scourge of pregnancy Worldwide, 10% of all pregnancies are complicated by hypertensive disorders which include gestatnal hypertension, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia and chronic hypertension. Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are by far the most worrying, with potential to cause serious morbidity and mortality in both mother and new-born. According to a WHO report,1 almost one-tenth of all maternal deaths […]

Overactive Bladder Syndrome


A summary The International Continence Society (ICS) has defined overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) as a symptom complex causing a sudden and overwhelming need to urinate, in the absence of known pathology like an acute urinary tract infection (UTI).   This definition includes the hallmark symptom of urinary urgency (a sudden compelling desire to urinate that […]



The commonest tumour in the female genital tract Uterine fibroids or leiomyomas, are the commonest benign tumour of the female genital tract in women of reproductive age. They are a frequent indication for gynaecological surgery and in the United States, about half of all hysterectomies are performed for leiomyomas. Likewise, about 10%-15% of women require […]

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